Berlinski, David. Third, what is the ontological ground of the universal moral standard? Mackie, Anthony Flew, etc. For his part, Dennett implies that belief in God cannot be reasonable because the concept of God is too radically indeterminate for the sentence “God exists” to express a genuine proposition. Dawkins also says that the hypothesis that an intelligent designer created the universe is self-defeating. Starting with the art rock band Roxy Music in 1971, he became bored with the rock and roll lifestyle quickly. In his 1949 speech, “Am I an Atheist or an Agnostic?” Russell admitted that he could not prove the non-existence of God any more than he could prove the non-existence of the Homeric gods. Their conclusion is that science fails to show that there is a God and even supports the claim that such a being probably does not exist. His specific hypothesis is that human beings have acquired religious beliefs because there is a selective advantage to child brains that possess the rule of thumb to believe, without question, whatever familiar adults tell them. The New Atheists make substantial use of the natural sciences in both their criticisms of theistic belief and in their proposed explanations of its origin and evolution. David John Chalmers [b. She began her career as a child star who later made the transition to adult stardom and expanded from there to produce some of the most popular and thought-provoking films of the last decades. Harris, Sam. Steven Weinberg [b. Sir Michael Philip “Mick” Jagger [b. Itâs always now Sam Harris notes on his blog, that heâs observed a number of instances, on You Tube, where folks have set the audio portions, from some of his appearances, to slide-show, animation, or video creations of their own. Ask Question Asked 1 year, 5 months ago. Despite several romances, the love of her live was Spencer Tracy, with whom she made nine movies. James E. Taylor 1946] of the legendary rock group Pink Floyd was born in Cambridge, England, son of a senior lecturer in zoology at Cambridge University. By 1962 he’d earned a private pilot’s license and began offering aerial tours of Olduvai. In a 1973 interview on The Dick Cavett Show Hepburn said that while she agreed with Christian principles and thought highly of Jesus Christ, she had no personal religious beliefs nor any belief in an afterlife. He also managed to get himself banished from Athens which caused him to go into the service of Ptolemy in Alexandria. If there are no divine revelations, then every sacred book is a merely human book. It was from this association with the leaders of the “Phage Group” of molecular biologists that he became involved in the search for the nature of genes. He also says that, whereas the Bible contains no formal discussion of mathematics and some obvious mathematical errors (he takes I Kings 7:23-26 to state that the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter— π—is 3:1), a book written by an omniscient being could contain a chapter on mathematics that would still be the richest source of mathematical insight humanity has ever known. 1929] is a theoretical physicist and emeritus professor at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his important contributions to knowledge about the evolution of stars, he is probably better known for his 1995 opus >Newton’s Principia for the Common Reader which explains the detailed arguments of Newton’s original Principia using the language and methods of ordinary calculus. At the foundation of Dennett’s “proto-theory” about the origin of religion and religious belief is his appeal to the evolution in humans (and other animals) of a “hyperactive agent detection device” (HADD), which is the disposition to attribute agency—beliefs and desires and other mental states—to anything complicated that moves. 1984] is an American computer programmer named by Time Magazine as one of the World’s Most Influential People in 2008 for his development of the internet application Facebook. As a producer he contributed to recordings by Genesis, David Bowie, Zvuki Mu and Robert Calvert. A defense of religion against the New Atheists’ arguments by a philosopher-theologian. Dawkins labels his argument for God’s non-existence “the Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit,” because he thinks that God’s existence is at least as improbable as the chance that a hurricane, sweeping through a scrap yard, would have the luck to assemble a Boeing 747 (an image that he borrows from Fred Hoyle, who used it for a different purpose). He was an important figure in the early development of the scientific methodology, insisting that nothing which cannot be tested through direct observation and defended through logical deduction should be believed. Watson began his Ph.D. research with Salvador Luria, who later earned his own Nobel for work with Max Delbruck on phages. 1942] is an American philosopher specializing in the philosophies of mind, science and biology. Philosopher Michael Ruse states that âif you want a concession, Iâve always said that naturalism is an act of faithâ¦â (2). At the age of 14 she starred in the movie Taxi Driver, for which she was nominated for an Academy Award. His work in television began in 1970 with the weekly children’s series, Suzuki on Science, going on to host CBC’s The Nature of Things and the acclaimed PBS series A Planet for the Taking. In a review of the book, The Cosmic Landscape: String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design, Michael Duff wrote that Susskind is “a card-carrying atheist.”, Stephen Jay Gould [1941-2002] was a paleontologist, evolutionary biologist and historian of science who became one of the most influential popularizers of evolutionary biology through his books and essays. “Science and religion occupy two separate realms of human experience,” he wrote in Rock of Ages. In reply to Dawkins, Craig argues that though the contents of God’s mind may be complex, God’s mind itself is simple. He does sketch a brief version of the cosmological argument for God’s existence but asserts that the final conclusion does not follow because the argument does not rule out alternative possibilities for the universe’s existence. Chalmers argues for an essentially dualistic view of mind which he terms, “naturalistic dualism.” Chalmers sits on the editorial board of the Journal of Consciousness Studies and his paper published there characterizing the mind-body problem in terms of philosophical zombies generated more than twenty response papers from such notables as Daniel Dennett, Francisco Varela, Francis Crick and Roger Penrose, and the exchanges are still among the most valuable literature debating the philosophy of consciousness ever generated. He is an energetic promoter of science generally and evolution in particular. The New Atheists seem to be generally agreed that theistic belief has generally worse attitudinal and behavioral moral consequences than atheistic belief. He had been raised Lutheran and later joined the Unitarian Universalist Church, but publicly declared his personal atheism two years before his death of prostate cancer at the age of 93. 7-37. Harris advocates a “spirituality” that involves meditation leading to happiness through an eradication of one’s sense of self. The scientific investigation of religion of the sort Dennett recommends has prompted a larger interdisciplinary conversation that includes both theists and non-theists with academic specialties in science, philosophy, and theology (see Schloss and Murray 2009 for an important example of this sort of collaboration). “Why I think the New Atheists are a Bloody Disaster,” https://biologos.org/blogs/archive/why-i-think-the-new-atheists-are-a-bloody-disaster, posted August 14th, 2009. In this way, the New Atheists link their epistemological critique of religious belief with their moral criticism of religion. Clinton Richard Dawkins [b. As a note of clarification: we’ve ordered this list chronologically and we use the term “brilliant” to mean “brilliant at their craft” – not just pure brainiacs;-). He follows up in The God Delusion with the claim that faith is an evil because it does not require justification and does not tolerate argument. Stephen Gary “Woz” Wozniak [b. As might be expected, attention has been focused on their epistemological views, their metaphysical assumptions, and their axiological positions. The same could probably be said of the modern times. A Scottish-born immigrant, he established the Carnegie Steel Company in Pittsburgh and later merged it with the Federal Steel Company to become U.S. Steel. The âNew Atheistâ label for these critics of religion and religious belief emerged out of journalistic commentary on the contents and impacts of their books. Having become one of the wealthiest musicians in the world – and a Knight of the Realm as of 2003 as well – Jagger founded his own film company with Victoria Pearman in 1995, Jagged Films. Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (New York: Penguin, 2006). He left school at 19 to follow his musical ambitions. Modern day atheism is built on God of the Gaps logic. I believe there’s nothing we can know except that we should be kind to each other and do what we can for other people.”. He has also written several books about science and environmentalism, is an outspoken critic of global climate change corporate deniers and established the David Suzuki Foundation to promote sustainability. A revised edition of his 2006 response to Christian reactions to his 2004 book. Jawaharlal Nehru [1889-1964] was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru rose to leadership of the Indian National Congress at a young age in part due to his charisma and advocacy of complete Indian independence from the British Empire. They agree that these sociological and psychological phenomena are rooted in biology. Steven Arthur Pinker [b. “I mean, he probably had one of the lowest body fat counts of any athlete. He married archeologist and orientalist Odette Bruhl in 1938, they had twin sons, Oliver and Phillippe, one of whom became a geologist, the other a physicist. An outspoken atheist, Carlin joked in his book Brain Droppings that he worshipped the sun because he could actually see it. 1930] is an American businessman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway rated by Forbes as the richest person in the world (in the first half of 2008, before the Wall Street meltdown). Criticisms have been raised about a number of the New Atheists claims mentioned above. He was dubbed the “Great Explainer” for two masterful lecture series on physics at Cal Tech (which were later turned into the books Six Easy Pieces and Six Not So Easy Pieces. Forging am independent, modern India where educational and social opportunities could been afforded to all citizens regardless of religion or caste, this rejection of any particular belief system in a region hosting such wide diversity no doubt helped him toward his considerable accomplishments. A veteran of many different day jobs, Adams once worked as a bodyguard for a Qatar oil family and told hilarious stories about his misadventures. Dawkins, Richard. Since leaving Apple he founded other ventures to produce things like the first universal remote and wireless GPS. His On An Island has been called “the most spiritual album ever made by an avowed atheist.”. Democritus was an ancient Greek philosopher, the most prolific and influential of the pre-Socratics and whose atomic theory is regarded as the intellectual culmination of early Greek thought. Moreover, given the New Atheist epistemological assumptions (and their consequences for religious epistemology), some criticism of their views has included questions about whether their reliance on empirical science is scientifically justified and whether there is adequate evidence to support their thesis of evidentialism. Many non-theists have located the natural basis for morality in human convention, a move that leads naturally to ethical relativism. Moreover, they think that it is possible to live a satisfying non-religious life on the basis of secular morals and scientific discoveries. Given this, Dennett questions whether any of the people who claim to believe in God actually do believe God exists. He insisted that there were no gods to reward or punish humans after death, that the universe is infinite and eternal, and that all things are ultimately material in nature. Here’s a look at 50 of the most prominent atheists of all time who also happen to be recognized as some of the most brilliant members of our species. Gilmour has a penchant for philanthropy, support which includes housing funds for the homeless, Oxfam, Greenpeace, Amnesty International, the Lung Foundation and others. The New Atheism: Taking a Stand for Science and Reason (Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2009). His first book expressed a well-developed philosophical outlook and was entitled Chinese Gung-Fu: The Philosophical Art of Self Defense. The New Atheists observe that if there is no supernatural reality, then religion and religious belief must have purely natural explanations. Sagan was an outspoken opponent of nuclear weapons and starred in the popular PBS television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. 1928] received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1962 as co-discoverer along with Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins of the molecular structure of DNA. The New Atheists appeal to the deliverances of the empirical sciences as their criterion for rational religious belief. He designed the gold plaque attached to the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, a message that could be understood by an extraterrestrial intelligence that encountered it. In 1973 he proposed a modification of the Standard Model of physics did not predict the Higgs, but there is as yet no consensus. Alicia Christian Foster [b. The atheist will often attempt to affirm the position that God is dependent on the mind rather than an objective reality. Born Sigismund Schlomo Freud [1856-1939], Freud was an Austrian psychiatrist founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. God is Great, God is Good: Why Believing in God is Reasonable and Responsible (Grand Rapids: InterVarsity Press, 2009). The epistemological component is their common claim that religious belief is irrational. It was the death of Turing’s first love in their last year at Sherborne from complications of bovine tuberculosis (contracted from drinking infected milk as a boy) that shattered Turing’s religious faith. Ayn Rand [1905-1982] was a Russian-born writer who emigrated to the U.S. in 1925. Today about 2.3 percent of the world’s population identifies themselves as atheist, and nearly 12 percent more (a number that is quickly growing) describe themselves as nontheist – non-believers in any deity. Wozniak is a committed philanthropist, funding various educational projects, and has even taught fifth graders. 1966] is a theoretical cosmologist specializing in general relativity and dark energy. The two became friends while working on a mainframe during the summer of 1970. As a matter of fact, he says, “The God of the Old Testament is arguably the most unpleasant character in all of fiction” (Dawkins 2006, p. 31). “Is Yahweh a Moral Monster? According to this view there can be no theistic belief that is also reasonable or rational. It was in this service that he was sent as an ambassador to Lysimachus, who became offended by Theodorus’ free speech as a lack of respect and decorum. Higgs describes himself as an atheist, but expresses discomfort with one of the designations of his field boson, the “God Particle.” That designation was popularized by Nobel Laureate Leon Lederman in his book by that title, published in 1993 as part of a PR campaign in favor of the proposed Superconducting Super Collider [SSC] proposed to be built in Texas. You might also try The Moral Landscape by Harris, very popular, pretty controversial. Freud’s family escaped after Nazi Germany annexed Austria in 1938 and moved to London. Yet among philosophers, a supposedly rational group, 62% are atheists (compared to about half that among all academics and 2% in the general population). Theodorus taught that the aim of human life was to obtain joy and avoid grief, and that joy comes through prudence while grief arises from folly. Currently he is a Senior Research Associate in Physics at Caltech, writes scientific books and textbooks in his areas of expertise, contributes to the blog Cosmic Variance, writes articles for science magazines such as Nature, Seedm and and is a popular presenter and lecturer at scientific symposia. Epicurus himself was never able to escape a life of pain or a painful death, as he suffered greatly from kidney stones and died at the age of 72 of complications from that ailment. Atheist philosophers of religion (during their main careers) would include people like J.L. And critics contend that the New Atheists’ answer to the question, “Why be moral?” could only show that belief in God is not needed to motivate people to be moral; it doesn’t explain what does (or should) motivate atheists to be moral. Dennett goes on to engage in a relatively extensive speculation about how religion and religious belief evolved from these purely natural beginnings. His cosmology and atomic theory held that the world was spheroid, that there were many worlds and many suns, and that all things manifest in nature were comprised of atoms bound together. Though he has been often accused by his critics of turning his environmental causes into a religion of its own, Suzuki describes himself in his autobiography as an atheist with no illusions about life and death. These authors include Sam Harris, Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and Christopher Hitchens. Reason, Faith, and Revolution: Reflections on the God Debate (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009). Other works include both positive and negative evaluations of the New Atheism. He was a capable student and went to the London School of Economics on scholarship. Dennett’s popular work in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, the books Content and Consciousness and Consciousness Explained reflect an expansive and detailed development of his philosophical ideas that have generated some heated debates among his peers. Andrew Carnegie [1835-1919] was a noted American industrialist, businessman and philanthropist. It was as a visiting professor at MIT in 1967 that he first proposed his electroweak unification theory, which predicted the existence of the Z boson and the existence of a mechanism of mass later known as the Higgs boson. His mother was an intellectual noted for translating Ibsen’s A Doll’s House into the Tamil language. Harris, Dawkins, and Hitchens each construct a case for the claim that no alleged written divine revelation could have a divine origin. 31-32). The combination of their reliance on science and their adherence to evidentialism entails that a religious belief can be justified only if it is based on adequate scientific evidence. Regarding the metaphysical component, the New Atheist authors share the central belief that there is no supernatural or divine reality of any kind. He says that religious faith is unjustified belief in matters of ultimate concern. He is a recipient of the 1997 Dirac Medal and Prize for outstanding contributions to theoretical physics, the High Energy and Particle Physics Prize by the European Physical Society, and the Wolf Prize in physics. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac [1902-1984] was a British theoretical physicist who contributed to the early development of quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics [QED]. Which is why, Carroll wrote in 2003, (Almost All) Cosmologists are Atheists. In 1999 the American Film Institute ranked Hepburn as cinema history’s greatest female star. It’s so boring.” In the end, he died after surgery for only one of them. “Demanding that they be combined detracts from the glory of each.”. He developed two rare forms of cancer late in his life, complaining that, “I’d hate to die twice. Critics allege that Dawkins’ assumption that God would need an external cause flies in the face of the longstanding theological assumption that God is a perfect and so necessary being who is consequently self-existent and ontologically independent. The fourth philosophical question raised by the New Atheists is one they address themselves: “Why should we be moral?” Harris’s answer is that being moral tends to contribute to one’s happiness. He wrote many books on the subjects of wealth and its responsibilities, on social issues and on political philosophy. God: The Failed Hypothesis. He was born into the Jewish tradition, yet self-identifies as an atheist. David Sloan Wilson [b. His appreciation for parliamentary democracy and concern for the poor allowed him to formulate policies derided by some for their socialist leanings. He is Felix Bloch professor of theoretical physics at Stanford. In fact, don’t get me going. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov [1849-1936] was a Russian physiologist, psychologist and physician. The Selfish Gene, 2nd ed. 1941] is the most prominent scientific atheist in the world today, and was the Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford until his retirement in 2008. Many atheists tend toward secular philosophies such as Humanism and Naturalism.. 1949) Barker, a former Protestant minister, is a jazz pianist, composer, author, â¦ Schloss, Jeffrey and Michael Murray, eds. Pauling’s wife Ava Hellen, whom he married in 1917, was a pacifist and peace activist who got him involved in the crusade against nuclear weapons and atmospheric bomb testing. He is said to have stretched his influence very thin in his efforts to protect his son and Jewish daughter-in-law and their children from the Nazis. Prominent atheists are getting the word out about their views in increasing numbers and generating lots of public debate on the proper place of religion in governments and share societies in the modern world. Also a prolific writer, he has also become famous for being an outspoken political dissident, anarchist, humanist freethinker and libertarian socialist. They draw on science for recommended alternatives to religion. Dawkins is less committed to this specific hypothesis than he is to the general hypothesis, and he is open to other specific hypotheses of the same kind. According to Harris, faith is the permission religious people give one another to believe things strongly without evidence. Prudence and justice represented good, their opposites evil. The New Atheists agree that, while religion may have been a byproduct of certain human qualities that proved important for survival, religion itself is not necessarily a beneficial social and cultural phenomenon on balance at present. Dawkins endorses the general hypothesis that religion and religious belief are byproducts (what some evolutionary biologists call “spandrels”) of something else that has survival value. The primary issue Searle identifies is a philosophical false dichotomy between strong materialism and subjective, first-person experience of the world. Theism, in turn, is best understood as a propositionâsomething that is either true or false. With respect to epistemology, critics point out that the New Atheist assumption that religious faith is irrational is at odds with a long philosophical history in the West that often characterizes faith as rational. He has been called “Darwin’s Rottweiler” in the press for his strong support of evolution by natural selection. Not content to simply speak against the popular pantheon of Greek gods, he also criticized the Eleusinian Mysteries. A scientific case against the existence of God by a physicist who also taught philosophy and who is often classified as a New Atheist. Just four days before his death the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts announced that he would receive the Mark Twain Prize for American Humor. An Atheism is a brilliantly written, thoughtful book that presents the reader with the history of a modern atheism that has separated itself from humanism. He thinks that scientific exploration into the nature of human consciousness will provide a progressively more adequate natural and rational basis for such a practice. As for metaphysics, Dawkins has been criticized for engaging in an overly cursory evaluation of theistic arguments and for ignoring the philosophical literature in natural theology. The moral component is the assumption that there is a universal and objective secular moral standard. 1962] is an American film actor, director and producer who has won three Bafta Awards, two Golden Globes, a Screen Actors Guild Award, a People’s Choice Award, and two Emmy nominations for her extensive body of work. Clarence Seward Darrow [1857-1938] was an American lawyer, a leading member of the ACLU and a notable defense attorney. 1957], better known as “PZ,” is an evolutionary developmental biologist and professor of biology at the University of Minnesota, Morris. Padma Vibhushan Subrahmanyan Chandresekhar [1910-1995] better known by his nickname “Chandra” – has a space-based X-ray observatory named after him, launched by the space shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. He became a disciple of Democritus after that notable philosopher paid a hefty ransom to free Diagoras from captivity following the subjugation of Melos in 416 b.c.e. U. S. A. He earned that Ph.D. in zoology from Indiana University at the age of 22. Sagan called himself an agnostic instead, explaining that “an atheist has to know a lot more than I know” in order to make a positive assertion that no deity exists. Historically, any person who did not believe in any deity supported by the state was fair game to accusations of atheism, a capital crime. Each of the New Atheists recommends or at least alludes to a non-religious means of personal fulfillment and even collective well-being. Richard Phillips Feynman [1918-1988] contributed much to the development of quantum mechanics, including what became known as Feynman diagrams, the path integral formulation, the theory of quantum electrodynamics [QED], the physics supercooled liquid helium’s superfluidity, and the parton model of particle physics. They also anticipate the reply that the moral consequences of atheism are worse than those of theism. 1963] is a Welsh writer and producer of the modern version of the popular science fiction television series Doctor Who. He is a best-selling author of popular science books as well as a popular speaker. Hitchens includes chapters entitled “The Metaphysical Claims of Religion are False” and “Arguments from Design,” but his more journalistic treatment of the cases for and against God’s existence amounts primarily to the claim that the God hypothesis is unnecessary, since science can now explain what theism was formerly thought to be required to explain, including phenomena such as the appearance of design in the universe. to the controversial (prohibition of “victimless crimes” such as drug use and prostitution, criminalization of abortion and euthanasia, “child abuse” due to identification of children as members of their parents’ religious communities, etc.). He was noted for his “tone poems” and operas such as Salome and Elektra, which made use of dissonance and generated much public outcry. Nearly all modern philosophers are atheists (87.9% by a recent poll if I remember correctly...), but anything by Dan Dennett is good, you might start with Breaking the Spell. Pinker’s works on how children acquire language echoes Noam Chomsky’s work on language as an innate faculty of mind. He celebrates the liberation of human beings from ignorance due to the growing and assumedly limitless capacity of science to explain the universe and everything in it. Share Tweet Email. He is a notable promoter of public understanding of science, and his entire course on quantum physics can be downloaded on the iTunes platform from Stanford. Strauss was dubious of all religion, except perhaps the religion of reason. If,however, âatheismâ is defined in terms of theism andtheism is the proposiâ¦ Search by Category. These debates are accessible in a number of places on the Internet. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). He describes the human mind as a sort of Swiss Army knife that comes with specialized tools designed to deal with problems our Pleistocene ancestors encountered. He espoused the natural rights of man, namely the right to life, liberty and property, and he articulated that every governmentâs purpose is to secure these rights for its nationals. 1940] is an American physicist specializing in string theory and quantum field theory. Her autobiographical and anti-Soviet novel We the Living, was published in 1936. He produced the opera Friedenstag in 1938, a thinly veiled criticism of the Third Reich. He describes himself as religiously agnostic. Dawkins further states that the God hypothesis creates a vicious regress rather than terminating one. Dennett, Daniel. God is Not Great: How Religion Poisons Everything (New York: Twelve, 2007). An intellectual and moral critique of faith-based religions that recommends their replacement by science-based spirituality. During the Nazi period he was appointed president of the German State Music Bureau and composed the theme song for the infamous 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. On the matter of religion, Crick once said, “Christianity may be okay between consenting adults in private, but should not be taught to young children.” In his book Of Molecules and Men he expressed his strong views on the relationship between science and religion. 1948] is an English musician, composer, record producer, music theorist and singer best known as the father of ambient music. When not being a prolific and brilliant artist, Eno is politically active, a humanist with strong anti-war and futurist views. 1932] is an American philosopher whose contributions to the philosophy of mind, philosophy of language and social philosophy made him an influential member and spokesperson for the Free Speech Movement in Berkeley during the late 1960s and early ’70s. 1928] is one of the most notable American philosophers of any age. 1949] is SUNY Distinguished Professor of Biology and Anthropology at Binghamton University in New York, a prolific popular science writer, and a promoter of evolution by group and multi-level selection. He adopted her two children and the couple had two more. In The Selfish Gene, Richard Dawkins states that faith is blind trust without evidence and even against the evidence. etc. The prosecution side was argued by William Jennings Bryan, the the trial served as the story for the play and later film, Inherit the Wind. Monod wrote the book Chance and Necessity in 1970, which became a popular primer on the relationship between the roles of random chance and adaptation in biological evolution and provided much ammunition to the atheist community by proposing that the natural sciences revealed an entirely purposeless world that undermines the traditional claims of the world’s religions. The close association between atheism and materialism is evident in Christopher Hitchensâ edited volume The Portable Atheist: Essential Readings for the Nonbeliever which includes as its first entry a collection of excerpts from the great Roman philosopher Lucretiusâ magisterial two thousand-year-old poetic work De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things). This view maintains that belief in God is genetically and biologically hardwired. For an introduction to the sorts of issues this conference addresses, see Copan 2008. Hitchens hints at his own source of secular satisfaction by claiming that the natural is wondrous enough for anyone.
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